The following abbreviations are used in this section:
- Cmd. The Command key located either side of the space bar. In menus this is indicated by the 4-looped symbol shown on the keyboard key (⌘). On old keyboards this key had an Apple logo and the loop symbol and so long-term Mac users sometimes still referred to it as the 'Apple', 'cloverleaf' or 'loop' key.
- Opt. The Option or Alt key located to the left of the left-hand Command key (and right-hand on extended keyboards. On newer laptops it replaces the old Enter key. Confusingly, In menus this is indicated by the stepped line symbol shown on the 'alt' keyboard key (⌥).
- Ctrl. The Control key, located to the left of the Option key. In menus this is indicated by a caret-type symbol (⌃). Note, this symbol is not always shown on the keyboard's 'ctrl' key.
Other keys shown by symbol rather than name are:
- Shift key (large up-arrow: ⇧).
- Return key (horizontal u-shaped arrow: ↩.). This key is the double height key to the right of the top two rows of letter keys and is commonly called the 'Enter' key. Elsewhere, in other apps/references, the Return key may also be indicated by this alternate symbol: ⏎. Thus ↩ and ⏎ are the same. Neither should be confused with the formal 'Enter' key as described next, below.
- Enter key (line over caret symbol: ⌤ or ⌅). Do not confuse this with the separate Return key, above, which is often referred to colloquially as the 'Enter' key. This key is found to the bottom right of the number pad on extended keywords and, on old laptops, to the right of the right-hand Command key. Modern laptops or wireless keyboards have no Enter key, you must use Function+Return (fn+↩).
- Arrow keys. Up/down/left/right (↑/↓/←/→).
- Tab key (⇥).
- Escape key (⎋).
- Eject key (⏏).
The format for describing shortcuts is [key1]+[key2]+[etc.]. Where letter keys are cited they are shown as capitals as in the menus but it is not necessary to use the (Shifted) uppercase letter, the lowercase suffices.